Updated August 8, 2019
Our mission is to simplify complex financial information and decisions so that our readers have the confidence to manage every aspect of their financial life. Your financial life is filled with personal decisions and challenges. Whether you are investing as a beginner or expert, planning your retirement, buying a home, studying for an exam in business school, or running a small business you have questions that need answering.
For over 20 years, we鈥檝e helped hundreds of millions of people do just that. We feel it鈥檚 important to share how we go about writing all of the articles that you depend on.
Empowering: Finance can be complex and intimidating. We provide you with information that you can use with confidence, whatever your level of experience.
Unbiased: From financial product recommendations to the financial implications of government policy we put things in context and provide all the facts. Our information is carefully researched and is not written to support any specific economic or political viewpoint.
Accurate: Having accurate financial information, presented clearly and updated regularly is of the utmost importance to us. We seek out and work with the most qualified experts across every topic we cover. Any mistakes, inaccuracies or misrepresentations identified by our readers are investigated and corrected promptly. Please contact us for corrections.
Inclusive: We work to ensure that our content serves鈥攁nd depicts with dignity and respect鈥攑eople of different ages, nationalities, religions, gender identities, sexual orientations, ethnicities, relationship statuses, physical and mental abilities, and family types.
We are committed to following the Codes of Ethics of the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing (SABEW). Our content is guided by and upholds the Society for Professional Journalists鈥 foundations of ethical journalism: being accurate and fair, minimizing harm, acting independently, and being accountable and transparent. We also uphold the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) guidelines on disclosures, where applicable.
Investopedia content is for informational purposes and is not intended to substitute for the advice of a licensed or certified attorney, accountant, financial advisor or other certified financial professionals.
Our staff of editors and network of expert contributors write and manage all the articles you find on Investopedia. We don鈥檛 make recommendations for you to buy, sell, or hold securities or investments. We do, however, provide relevant analysis, context, insights, and educational information to help you make smarter, better-informed decisions. Wherever possible we provide examples that help put complex topics and concepts into perspective.
Our editorial team is continually evaluating the articles across our site to flag any that contain information that is known to be or is likely to be out-of-date. Such articles are reviewed and updated or, if necessary, completely rewritten, rechecked, and re-edited. Our network of experienced experts, who uphold our process and policies, assist with our updating efforts. Articles that have been updated are date-stamped to reflect this.
Every article you see has multiple people behind it, continually working to make sure that it is responsible, accurate, understandable, helpful, and reflective of our editorial principles.
Our editorial team approves all story ideas independently, and our expert contributors each have deep subject matter expertise in the topics that we assign them. Our team of professional editors, fact checkers and producers review content to ensure it upholds our values of being empowering, inclusive, unbiased and accurate.
All staff are responsible for disclosing any potential conflicts of interest.
Investopedia experts are carefully recruited, vetted and chosen. Some are experienced financial writers, others are experts in particular aspects of finance; many are both. They are selected for their knowledge and their skill at communicating complex topics in clear, accessible, actionable language.
Every article鈥檚 author or reviewer is listed at the top of the page, to the left of the date, and is linked to their biography, which you can click on to learn more about their credentials, education, professional experience, and social media presence.
All writers are required to uphold the editorial guidelines listed above.
Third-party content is carefully reviewed by the Investopedia editorial team to ensure that it is aligned with our policies and standards. Any such content is labeled clearly and conspicuously to notify you of its source.
Updated August 8, 2019
Investopedia accepts advertising, but maintains a strict and clear separation between advertising and editorial content.聽Special attention is paid to featuring advertising in a way that will not interfere with your reading experience. This relates to both page design and to the number of ads we choose to feature on a page.
Investopedia maintains a distinct separation between advertising and editorial content.
- All advertising or sponsored content on Investopedia is clearly and unambiguously distinguished from editorial content through borders or other distinguishing elements and/or identified as an "Ad," "Advertisement," "Sponsored" or a similar designation indicating that the content is being provided by or on behalf of the sponsor.
- All ads on Investopedia are labeled as an "Ad," "Advertisement," "Sponsored" or a similar designation indicating that the content is being provided by or on behalf of the sponsor.
- All "native" ads or paid content are identified as an "Ad," "Advertisement," "Sponsored" or a similar designation indicating that the content is being provided by or on behalf of the sponsor.
- Editorial content on Investopedia is not influenced by advertisements unless the content is sponsored content, in which case, the content will be clearly demarcated and identified with the title "Ad," "Advertisement," or "Sponsored", or a similar designation, indicating that the content is being provided by or on behalf of an advertiser or sponsor.
Financial services companies offer a variety of products online, putting millions of products at your fingertips. Many of our readers come to us to help determine the best products for their needs and we review financial products like online brokers and credit cards to help them make their decisions. In content where we are recommending financial products, there will be a disclosure prominently displayed that includes a link to a detailed methodology of how we completed the reviews. As an example, you can review our methodology for reviewing online brokers.
Updated June 7, 2019
Our Services are intended for general audiences over the age of 16 years old. We do not knowingly collect information from children under the age of 16 years old.聽
1. Information We Collect About You
Information You Provide To Us:
You may provide personal information to us, if you choose to:
- submit a help request, a customer services inquiry or other inquiry to us, or fill in any other forms for the purposes of receiving our Services;
- participate in some of the features accessible via the Services (for example, message boards, games, surveys, polls, promotions, contests, sweepstakes or other incentives);
- participate in any Services that require registration;
- enroll in any of our Webinars and/or Courses;
- contact us about employment opportunities;聽
- otherwise use the Services in a manner that you have requested.
Depending on which of these or any other Services you use, the personal information you provide may include:
- personal details (e.g. name, date of birth, professional title, company name, and household income, investment interests, retirement information, information about your educational background);聽
- contact details (e.g. phone number, email address, postal address, or mobile number);
- account details (e.g. user name and password);
- transaction details (e.g. when you make a purchase or respond to offers);
- communications (e.g. when you participate or post material in message boards or forums, participate in polls or surveys, write a review or provide a testimonial, or contact us with a question, comment, or request); or
- professional information (e.g. if you are a Financial Advisor participating in our Advisor Insights program, information about your credentials, including, without limitation, broker CRD number, professional website URL, biographical information, licences and designations, and profile picture).
Please be aware, that by posting information to message boards, chat groups or social networking facilities available via the Services, you will be making this information available to other users of these Services to the public. You should be careful about revealing any sensitive details about yourself.
If you purchase Courses through the Investopedia Academy, please note that we do not currently collect or retain credit card numbers internally. We partner with third party payment providers. All direct payment gateways are required to adhere to the standards set by PCI-DSS as managed by the PCI Security Standards Council, which is a joint effort of brands like Visa, MasterCard, American Express and Discover. PCI-DSS requirements are intended to promote the secure handling of credit card information.
We also have features that allow you to send an email to yourself and/or others about an item on our site. If you choose to use our email referral service, you will be required to provide the e-mail address or addresses that will be used in the notification. Upon form submission an email will be generated to your recipient(s) inviting them to visit the URL you have recommended. We do not store this information other than for the sole purpose of sending this one-time e-mail.
Information Collected Via Automated Technologies and Interactions:
When you use the Services, we may automatically collect聽information via automatic means about your computer or device, your preference settings, your location, and your activities, including:
- IP address of your computer;
- Unique mobile device identifiers;
- Technical information about your computer or mobile device such as type of device, mobile device ID number, screen resolution, web browser information, and operating system or platform;
- Your preferences and settings (time zone, language, etc.);
- Internet provider or mobile carrier name;
- The URL of the last webpage you visited before visiting the Website;
- Information about your activity on the Services (e.g., your search queries, mis-formatted DNS entries, search results selected, clicks, pages viewed, search history, comments, forms filled out and submitted, how often you use the Services);
- Information we generate as a result of your use of the Services (e.g. our understanding of your interests as a result of your use of the Services and whether you are a regular or occasional user of the Services); and
- If you are using a mobile device, your mobile device鈥檚 geographic location (specific geographic location if you鈥檝e enabled collection of that information, or general geographic location automatically). Please see the section 鈥淢obile Device Location Information鈥 below for further information.
Third-parties who provide us with products and services may also place cookies, ad tags and/or beacons that collect the information outlined above in order to provide us with products and services including:聽
- Analytics tools (e.g., Google Analytics) allowing us to analyze the performance of our Services.
- Service features and functionalities such as those that enable videos to be played and you to connect to your social media accounts.
- Advertisers and ad networks allowing the delivery of targeted advertisements.聽
These third parties may also collect information about you from other sources and combine it with other information collected about you from third party websites not affiliated with us. For example, advertiser and advertising networks, as well as data analytics companies who service them, may participate in online behavioral advertising and track your activity across various sites and/or devices where they display ads and record your activities, so they can show ads that they consider relevant to you.聽
Do Not Track:聽Do Not Track (鈥淒NT鈥? is an optional browser setting that allows you to express your preferences regarding tracking by advertisers and other third-parties. DNT is a way for users to inform websites and services that they do not want certain information about their webpage visits collected over time and across websites or online services.
These third parties may also provide us with information about your interactions with their products and services and/or activities on third party websites. For example, use of Service functions that connect to your social media account (e.g., Facebook Connect) may permit us access to your social network profile information, including your first name, last name, gender, birth date and email address, in accordance with your settings on the social network. If you choose to post information to your social media account via the Services, you will be making this information available to other users of these Services. We encourage you to be careful about revealing any sensitive details about yourself via our Services or otherwise.
2. How We Use Your Personal Information And The Basis On Which We Use It
We may use the information we collect from and about you for the following purposes:
- Identification and authentication: We use your identification information to verify your identity and/or eligibility for our Services when you access and use our Services and to ensure the security of your personal information. This is so we can comply with our obligations to you.聽
- Improving our Services: We analyze information about how you use our Services to provide an improved experience for our customers, including product testing, site analytics, and personalizing content to your interests. It is in our legitimate business interests to use the information provided to us for this purpose, so we can understand any issues with our Services and improve them.聽
- Understanding our users: We also analyze information about our users in order to understand our users (their demographics, what you do on our Services, what features you like, how they use them etc.). It is in our legitimate business interests to use the information provided to us for this purpose, so we can understand our users and improve our Services.
- Operating the Services: We process your personal information to administer our Services, diagnose technical problems, provide customer support, complete your transactions, and otherwise manage our business. This is so that we can comply with our contractual obligations to you.
- Communicating with you: We may use your personal information when we communicate with you, for example if we are sending you communications that you have requested, communications which relate to Services you have purchased or enrolled in, which may be of interest to you in accordance with your preferences, if we are providing information about changes to the terms and conditions, if you contact us with questions, or to provide you with customer support. It is in our legitimate interests that we are able to provide you with appropriate information, responses and provide you with notices about our Services. Please see the section 鈥淩eviewing, changing or deleting information鈥 for further information about how you can control these communications.
- Marketing: We may use your personal information to build a profile about you and place you into particular marketing segments in order to understand your preferences better and to appropriately personalize the marketing messages we send to you. It is in our legitimate interest to provide you with more relevant and interesting advertising messages, and inform our marketing strategy. We may use automated decision-making to deliver tailored advertisements based on your personal information. Where necessary, we will obtain your consent before sending such marketing messages.聽
- Complying with our obligations: We may process your personal information in order to, for example, carry out fraud prevention checks or comply with other legal or regulatory requirements, where this is explicitly required by law.
- Customizing your experience: When you use the Services, we may use your personal information to improve your experience of the Services, such as by providing interactive or personalized elements on the Services and providing you with content based on your interests. We may use automated decision-making to customize your experience based on your personal information.聽
- Compensating our partners: We may process your personal information for purposes of calculating compensation to be paid to our third party product/service providers and distributors and to analyze usage across products, services and distribution partner/channel. It is in our legitimate interest to appropriately determine amounts to be paid to our partners and inform our product roadmap and distribution strategy.
- Delivering prizes: may use your personal information to deliver prizes in connection with contests and sweepstakes, deliver perks earned in connection with certain incentive programs, or otherwise facilitate the use of our Services.
- In Connection with Webinars and Courses: In addition to the uses described above, if you are enrolled in and/or take any of our Webinars and/or Courses, we may use the registration information you provide, including personally identifiable information, to use through your Account for managing and processing purposes, including but not limited to tracking attendance, progress and completion of Course and/or Webinar. As part of our management and processing of each Course and/or Webinar, we may use this information to proctor exams, projects, and other assessments for each Course and/or Webinar. For example, as part of a Webinar that provides CE credits, we will use certain information collected from you in order to verify your identity, or to monitor your performance during the exam to confirm that you are abiding by the rules or requirements for obtaining CE credits. We may share such information that we collect from you when you participate in a Course with the company (if any) and/or lecturer(s) who provided, taught, managed, sponsored, or otherwise oversaw that Webinar or Course, and, where applicable, you will be subject to such third party鈥檚 privacy policies; and (ii) that third party may use the personally identifiable information you provide for its own marketing purposes. If you do not want us to share your personal information with these companies, please contact us at聽privacy@dongtaikeji.cn.
We may also aggregate and de-identify your information in such a way that you may not reasonably be re-identified by us or any other company, and may use this information for any other purpose.
3. How We Share The Information We Collect
We will not share the personal information we collect about you with any third party except as indicated below or when we inform you and give you an opportunity to opt out of having your personal information shared. We will share your information in the following ways:
- Our suppliers, subcontractors and business partners: (鈥渟ervice providers鈥?: We may share your data with our services providers and business partners who perform marketing services and other business operations for us for the purposes set forth above. For example, we may partner with companies to process secure payments, fulfill orders, optimize services, serve online behavioral advertising, send newsletters and marketing messages, support email and messaging services, and analyze information. These service providers are required to treat the data in accordance with confidentiality requirements.
- Service requests: We enable you to request information and/or services from third party service providers or partners by filling out a registration, information request, or similar service request form for specific services from them (e.g., filling in a sponsored partner鈥檚 form to identify your retirement risk profile and/or submitting a request with such information for more information from that partner or another party). When you fill out and submit a service request form through our Website, you consent to our providing your personal information and request to the third party provider and/or partner. Sharing this information with the party provider and/or partner allows them to contact you using the contact information you provided. Additionally, we have other contractual partners that that utilize their own service provider to supplement our offering, and we share your information with them in order to attempt to provide the services requested.
- Webinars/Courses: We may share certain information with third parties that enable us to provide you the Webinars and/or Courses. For example, but not as a limitation, our Webinar and Course platforms may be hosted by third parties who will use your information to allow you to access the Webinar and/or Course. We also use third party payment providers who will use your information to process payment, subject to their own privacy policies. Additionally, for any continuing education eligible Webinar, we will share information provided to us as well as information regarding your completion of such Webinar with the organization issuing continuing education certificates, including without limitation, for the purpose of verifying your eligibility for the continuing education credits. We may also use third party customer service platform providers in order to help us provide customer service capabilities in connection with your use of one or more of our Services, including without limitation the Webinars and/or Courses.
- Group Companies: We may share your information with our affiliates, which are entities under common ownership or control of our ultimate parent company, IAC/InterActiveCorp for marketing purposes, security, optimization of products and services, and internal reporting. We do this for the purposes set out above.聽
- In the context of a transaction: we may share your personal information with potential transaction partners, service providers, advisors and other third parties in connection with the consideration, negotiations, or completion of a corporate transaction in which we are acquired by or merged with another company or we sell or transfer or all or a portion of our assets or business.聽In such an event, we will seek to provide you with commercially reasonable notice , e.g.,via email and/or notice on our website, of any change in ownership, incompatible new uses of your personal information, and choices you may have regarding your personal information.
In cases of onward transfer to third parties of data of EU or Swiss individuals received pursuant to the EU-US or the Swiss-US Privacy Shield, Investopedia is potentially liable.
4. Data Retention and Access
5. Your Rights and Your Privacy Choices聽
You have certain rights regarding the personal information we hold about you, subject to local law. These may include the rights to access, correct, delete, restrict, or object to our use of, or receive a portable copy in usable electronic format of your personal information. You may also have a right to lodge a complaint with your local data protection or privacy regulator.聽
Choices relating to information we collect: We may be required by law to collect certain personal information about you or as a consequence of any contractual relationship we have with you. Failure to provide this information may prevent us from providing certain Services or all of the Services to you.聽
Online behavioral advertising: You may opt-out of third party advertising-related cookies, pixel tags, and web beacons, in which case our advertising should not be targeted to you. You will continue to see advertisements on the Website. However, they will not be tailored to you. You can choose to opt-out through these (and other) websites:
- Network Advertising Initiative (http://www.networkadvertising.org/)
- Digital Advertising Alliance (http://www.aboutads.info/consumers)
- Your Online Choices (http://www.youronlinechoices.com/)
- Advertising: When using a mobile application you may receive tailored in-application advertisements. Each operating system, iOS for Apple phones, Android for Android devices and Windows for Microsoft devices provides its own instructions on how to prevent the delivery of tailored in-application advertisements. You may review the support materials and/or the privacy settings for the respective operating systems in order to opt-out of tailored in-application advertisements. For any other devices and/or operating systems, please visit the privacy settings for the applicable device or contact the applicable platform operator. We do not control how the applicable platform operator allows you to control receiving tailored in-application ads; thus, you should contact the platform provider if the above options are no longer available. Note that you may opt out of tracking and receiving tailored advertisements on your mobile device by some mobile advertising companies and other similar entities by downloading the App Choices app at聽www.aboutads.info/appchoices
- Location Information: When you use one of our location-enabled services (for example, when you access Services from a mobile device), we may need to collect and process information about your specific GPS location (including the latitude, longitude or altitude of your mobile device) and the time the location information was recorded, and we may use that information to customize the Services with location-based information, advertising, and features. Some of these services require your personal data for the feature to work and we associate location data with your device ID and other information we hold about you. You can stop your location information from being collected by disabling this function within the settings available on your device. In connection with currency conversion functionality found on our site (if applicable), "By using our website, you (the visitor) agree to allow third parties to process your IP address, in order to determine your location for the purpose of currency conversion. You also agree to have that currency stored in a session cookie in your browser (a temporary cookie which gets automatically removed when you close your browser). We do this in order for the selected currency to remain selected and consistent when browsing our website so that the prices can convert to your (the visitor) local currency."
We encourage you to contact us at the contact information set forth below to update or correct your information if it changes or if the personal information we hold about you is inaccurate. Where you have provided your consent to any use of your personal information, you can withdraw this consent at any time.
Please note that we may require additional information from you in order to honor your requests.
If you would like to discuss or exercise any rights you may have under law, please contact us at the contact information set forth below.
6. Automated Decisions About You
When you use the Services, we may make automated decisions about you based on your personal information in the following circumstances:聽
- To deliver personalized offers, discounts, or recommendations based on your shopping history, viewing history, and browsing history, and聽
- To serve you with ads based on various factors such as the content of the page you are visiting, information you provide such as your age or gender, your searches, demographic data, user-generated content and other information that you provide to us. These ads may be based on your current activity or your activity over time and may be tailored to your interests.
7. Right to Access, Review, Change or Delete Information
To access, review, change or delete personal information we have collected from you, please visit our Privacy Center page and send a message to our Support team. To make changes to your account, you may also聽login聽to your account and visit the聽Manage Profile聽page.
Your specific rights regarding access, review, revision, or deletion of your information is dictated by local laws.聽
Legal rights applicable to personal data collected in the EEA. Pursuant to the聽EU General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation 2016/679)聽natural persons (called data subjects) are afforded certain rights regarding their personal data, including the right access, correct, delete, restrict or object to our use of, and receive a portable copy in a usable electronic format of your personal information. You also have the right withdraw any consent that you have previously provided to us and to lodge a complaint with your local data protection or privacy regulator.
If you would like to exercise any of the rights outlined above, and the law of your jurisdiction requires us to honor that request, please send your request in writing to the address in the 鈥淐ontact Us鈥 section below. To assist us in processing your request in timely manner, please make your request in English if you are able to do so. Your request should include any information relevant to your request, including, without limitation: (i) your name, email and postal address; (ii) the specific right you are asserting (e.g., removal); and (iii) if you are requesting removal, a brief explanation of why you believe such information should be removed.聽
To help us prevent fraudulent removal requests, please also include a legible copy of a document that verifies your identity. You need not provide a government-issued document; a utility bill or similar mailing will suffice. You may also obscure parts of the document such as identifying numbers so long as the document continues to clearly identify you. If you are making the request on behalf of another person, please indicate your relationship to that person and provide evidence of your authority to make such request. All requests for removal will be reviewed by Investopedia鈥檚 legal and compliance team and we reserve the right, in compliance with applicable laws, to accept or reject, or make further inquiries regarding, any requests.
You will not have to pay a fee to access your personal data (or to exercise any of the other rights). However, we may charge a reasonable fee if your request is clearly unfounded, repetitive or excessive. Alternatively, we may refuse to comply with your request in these circumstances.
We try to respond to all legitimate requests within one month. Occasionally it may take us longer than a month if your request is particularly complex or you have made a number of requests. In this case, we will notify you and keep you updated.
8. How We Protect Your Information
9. Retention of Your Information
We retain the information we collect about and from you for as long as necessary to fulfill the purpose we collected it for and for the purpose of satisfying any legal, accounting, or reporting requirements. To determine the appropriate retention period for personal information we process, we consider the amount, nature, and sensitivity of the personal data, the potential risk of harm from unauthorized use or disclosure of your information, the purposes for which we process your personal data and whether we can achieve those purposes through other means, and the applicable legal, accounting, or reporting requirements. In some circumstances we may choose to aggregate and de-identify your information in such a way that you may not reasonably be re-identified by us or any other company in which case we may use this information indefinitely without further notice to you.
In some circumstances, you can ask us to delete your data: see Right to Access, Review, Change or Delete Your Information.聽
10. Use Outside the United States of America
11. Linked Sites and Advertisements
12. Your California Privacy Rights
13. International Data Transfer
Further, if you are receiving the Services from the European Economic Area (the 鈥淓EA鈥? we note that your information may be transferred to, stored, and processed in a country that is not regarded as providing the same level of protection for personal information as the laws of your home country, and may be available to the government of those countries under a lawful order made in those countries.聽
We have put in place appropriate safeguards (such as contractual commitments) in accordance with applicable legal requirements to provide adequate protections for your personal information. For further details, see聽European Commission: Model contracts for the transfer of personal data to third countries. We may also transfer data to the U.S. under the聽Privacy Shield framework聽which requires them to provide similar protection to personal data shared between the EU and the US.聽
14. EU-US Privacy Shield Framework and Swiss-US Privacy Shield Framework
Investopedia has further committed to refer unresolved privacy complaints regarding the Website or mobile applications under the EU- US and Swiss-US Privacy Shield Principles to an independent dispute resolution mechanism, the BBB EU PRIVACY SHIELD, a non-profit alternative dispute resolution provider located in the United States and, operated by the Council of Better Business Bureaus. If you do not receive timely acknowledgment of your complaint, or if your complaint is not satisfactorily addressed by us, please visit the BBB EU PRIVACY SHIELD web site at聽www.bbb.org/EU-privacy-shield/for-eu-consumers/聽for more information and to file a complaint.
Investopedia is subject to the investigatory and enforcement powers of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
15. Contact Us
If you have questions or concerns regarding the way in which your personal information has been used, or if you want to opt-out of having your personal information shared with third parties or for any purpose that is materially different than the purpose you shared it with us please send a request to the following address with a preference on how our response to your request should be sent (email or postal mail).聽
Attn: Your Privacy Rights
119 West 40th Street, 8th Floor
New York NY 10018
All requests sent via regular mail must be labeled "Your Privacy Rights" on the envelope or post card and clearly stated on the actual request. For all requests, please include your name, street address, city, state, and zip code (your street address is optional if you wish to receive a response to your request via email. Please include your zip code for our own recordkeeping).
Investopedia is the controller (as provided under the laws applicable to EEA jurisdictions) responsible for all the personal information we collect and process. We are represented in the EU by our affiliate, IAC Search & Media UK, Ltd., which can be contacted at:
If you have questions or concerns regarding the way in which your personal information collected in the EEA is processed or transferred, please contact our Data Protection Officer at:聽
Data Protection Officer
555 12th Street, Suite 300
Oakland, CA 94607
We are committed to working with you to obtain a fair resolution of any complaint or concern about privacy. If, however, you believe that we have not been able to assist with your complaint or concern, you may have the right to make a complaint to the data protection authority of your country of residence.
If you have an unresolved privacy or data use concern that we have not addressed satisfactorily, please contact our U.S.-based third party dispute resolution provider (free of charge) at聽http://feedback-form.truste.com/watchdog/request.聽
Updated May 25, 2018
In this Cookies Policy, we use the term Investopedia (and "we", "us" and "our") to refer Investopedia, LLC (an IAC Publishing, LLC business).
What is a cookie?
Cookies are text files containing small amounts of information which are downloaded to your computer or mobile device when you visit a website. Cookies are then sent back to the originating website on each subsequent visit, or to another website that recognizes that cookie. Cookies are widely used in order to make websites work, or to work more efficiently, as well as to provide information to the owners of the site
Cookies do lots of different jobs, like letting you navigate between pages efficiently, remembering your preferences, and generally improving the user experience. Cookies may tell us, for example, whether you have visited our Services before or whether you are a new visitor. They can also help to ensure that adverts you see online are more relevant to you and your interests.
There are two broad categories of cookies:
- First party cookies, served directly by us to your computer or mobile device.
- Third party cookies, which are served by a third party on our behalf. We use third party cookies for functionality, performance / analytics, advertising and social media purposes.
Cookies can remain on your computer or mobile device for different periods of time. Some cookies are 'session cookies', meaning that they exist only while your browser is open. These are deleted automatically once you close your browser. Other cookies are 'permanent cookies', meaning that they survive after your browser is closed. They can be used by websites to recognize your computer when you open your browser and browse the Internet again.
- track traffic flow and patterns of travel in connection with our Services;
- understand the total number of visitors to our sites on an ongoing basis and the types of internet browsers (e.g. Chrome, Safari or Internet Explorer), operating systems (e.g. Windows or MacOS), and screen resolutions used by our visitors;
- monitor the performance of our Services and to continually improve them;
- customize and enhance your online experience; and
- enable Investopedia and third-party advertising both on and off this website.
We also use a third party, such as comScore, parse.ly, and Google Analytics to gather general information about how people use our website for the purposes of website optimization and analytics.聽
What types of cookies do we use?
The types of cookies used by us and our partners in connection with the Services can be classified into one of five categories, namely 'essential website cookies', 'functionality cookies', 'analytics and performance cookies', 'advertising cookies', and ' social media cookies'. We've set out some further information about each category, and the purposes of the cookies we and third parties set in the following table.
|Types of Cookie|
|Type of cookie||What it does||How to block|
|Cookies necessary for essential website purposes||These cookies are essential to provide you with services available through this website and to use some of its features.||Please see the instructions set out in 'How to control or delete cookies' below.|
|Functionality Cookies||Functionality cookies record information about choices you've made and allow us to tailor the website to you. These cookies mean that when you continue to use or come back to the Services, we can provide you with our services as you have asked for them to be provided. For example, these cookies allow us to offer store accessibility options.||Please see the instructions set out in 'How to control or delete cookies' below.|
|Performance / Analytics Cookies||
We use performance/analytics cookies to analyze how the website is accessed, used, or is performing in order to provide you with a better user experience and to maintain, operate and continually improve the website. For example, these cookies allow us to:
Please also see the instructions set out in 'How to control or delete cookies' below.
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To the extent we enable you to, and you choose to post or share any content or materials, including, without limitation, through the AI Service (e.g. questions) or through the Investopedia Academy Service (e.g., quizzes, homework, projects, etc.) (鈥淈strong>User Content鈥? you will be:聽(a) granting Investopedia a fully transferable, sub-licensable (with rights to sublicense, including, without limitation, through multiple tiers) to display, perform, reproduce, modify, transfer, distribute and create derivative works from the User Content and to associate your public profile information (if any) with such User Content, in any media formats and through any channels (whether now known or hereafter developed) and waiving any moral rights in favor of Investopedia with respect to such use of the User Content; (b) granting Investopedia a perpetual, world-wide, royalty-free, fully paid-up, non-exclusive license to allow your materials to be edited and displayed by Investopedia on its Site, and accessed by Users, for the purposes and on the terms as set out in these TOU; (c) agreeing to indemnify and hold harmless Investopedia and its Users from any claim or demand made by any third party due to or arising out of your User Content; and (d) representing that you own or otherwise have the right to post the User Content, that the User Content is accurate, that use of the User Content on the Site does not violate any laws, and that the materials will not cause injury to any person, including without limitation to the intellectual property, personal or privacy rights of others. Investopedia shall have the right to use your name in connection with your posted User Content. Investopedia reserves the right to remove or modify any User Content for any reason, including without limitation, if we believe it violates these TOU.
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Advisor Insights 鈥 for Users
Investopedia may offer certain services, including, for example, Investopedia鈥檚 Advisor Insights service (the 鈥淈strong>AI Service鈥?, which allow users to engage in one or another manner with a network of third party experts and advisors (including by submitting proposed questions to be posed to financial planning and personal finance professionals). Your use of and reliance on such services, if any, is entirely at your own risk, and you are solely responsible for complying with this TOU at all times. Your submissions (including any public profile information associated with such submission) and any associated responses from our advisor network, all of which materials constitute Third Party Content under this TOU, may be displayed in publicly viewable forums. Submission of a question does not guarantee a response will be provided. Please note that we also enable you to follow individual advisors by clicking on the 鈥渇ollow鈥 button on an advisor鈥檚 Investopedia profile page and providing your email address. If you choose to follow any advisor, you agree to receive weekly recaps of the advisors content via an email newsletter. You may unsubscribe from receiving an advisor newsletter at any time by clicking the opt-out link in any email communication from us and/or by accessing the 鈥淢anage Subscriptions鈥 page on our Site. Please also see our 鈥淐ommunications鈥 section below for more information on how we may communicate with you regarding the AI Service and other services we offer.
IMPORTANT:聽No Client Relationship; No Privilege.聽By answering questions, advisors do not intend to form, and do not form an advisor-client, planner-client, or any other direct privileged or professional relationship with any user of the Site. Please keep in mind that laws, regulations, other governing authorities, standards, practices and procedures that apply to your particular question may differ depending on your location. Additionally, none of the Third Party Content will be treated as private or confidential, nor is it protected by attorney-client, or any other privilege, and it may be read, collected, and used by Investopedia and others. Search engines may index your questions, answers, and other Third Party Content to allow such content to appear in search engine results (e.g. if someone does a search on google.com or another search engine, your questions, answers, and other Third Party Content on our Site that relate to the search may appear in the search results list with links to your questions, answers, and other Third Party Content).
PLEASE NOTE: Investopedia does not provide tax, accounting, legal, investment, or financial services. The information available through Investopedia鈥檚 AI Service is provided by third parties and solely for informational purposes on an 鈥渁s is鈥 basis at user鈥檚 sole risk. The information is not meant to be, and should not be construed as advice or used for investment, financial planning, legal, accounting, or tax purposes. Investopedia makes no guarantees as to the accurateness, quality, or completeness of the information and Investopedia shall not be responsible or liable for any errors, omissions, inaccuracies in the information or for any user鈥檚 reliance on the information. User is solely responsible for verifying the information as being appropriate for user鈥檚 personal use, including without limitation, seeking the advice of a qualified professional regarding any specific financial, legal, accounting, or tax questions a user may have. While Investopedia may edit questions provided by users for grammar, punctuation, profanity, and question title length, Investopedia is not involved in the questions and answers between advisors and users, does not endorse any particular financial, legal, accounting, or tax professionals that provide answers via the AI Service, and is not responsible for any claims made by any advisor. Investopedia is not endorsed by or affiliated with any state/provincial/territorial bar association or other legal or accounting membership organization or association, tax authorities, or agencies or associations, or the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) in the U.S., the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) or any other financial regulatory authority, agency, or association.
POSTS ARE NOT CONFIDENTIAL.聽The Advisor Insights is a forum-based service and any information and materials you submit in connection with your profile and/or any questions you pose to any one of the advisors via the AI Service may be displayed in publicly viewable forums.
Advisor Insights 鈥 for Advisors
Participation in the AI Service as an advisor involves a vetting and approval process. Acceptance into the AI Service is at Investopedia鈥檚 sole discretion and may be based on such factors as licenses/registrations, designations, assets under management, SEC/FINRA or IIROC disclosures, applicable state/provincial/territorial regulator information, federal/state/provincial/territorial agencies in connection with tax and/or accounting licensing boards and/or agencies, and other considerations deemed relevant by Investopedia in its sole discretion. By applying to the AI Service, you are representing and warranting to the accuracy and completeness of all information provided to Investopedia during and after the application process.
If accepted into the AI Service, you agree to promptly notify Investopedia if any information previously provided becomes incorrect or otherwise obsolete. Participation in the AI Service requires, at a minimum, that you maintain your status as a registered financial advisor. You shall be solely responsible for ensuring ongoing compliance with all registration requirements and any obligations imposed by applicable regulators and/or your employer. Should you lose your status as a registered financial advisor, or if there has been any other material change to your profile or the information submitted as part of the application process (including if you become subject to any legal or regulatory action, proceeding or sanctions), you agree to immediately cease participating in the AI Service, and to promptly notify Investopedia so that your profile may be suspended or removed.
By applying for and/or participating in the AI Service, you acknowledge that the purpose of the AI Service is to be a聽source of general information and education for Investopedia鈥檚 users at large聽and, accordingly, while answers you publish through the AI Service may include analysis of different options and considerations given the facts indicated by the questioners, answers may not include a recommendation that the questioner take a specific course of action. Specifically,
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Your participation in the AI Service is specifically to allow you to provide answers to questions posed through the AI Service. Investopedia does not answer AI Service questions itself, nor does it provide tax, investment, financial, tax, accounting, or legal services. Investopedia is under no obligation to review, edit or verify the usefulness, reliability, completeness or accuracy of any answers you publish through the AI Service, and Investopedia expressly disclaims any and all liability in connection with your answers or other submissions through the AI Service, for which you shall be solely liable. Investopedia does, however, reserve its right to remove any answer or other content from the AI Service or the Investopedia website generally, in its sole discretion, and with or without advance notice. By publishing an answer to an AI Service question, you are attesting to such answer鈥檚 veracity, completeness and accurateness, as well as having all necessary rights to publish such answer. By submitting an answer you additionally grant Investopedia a worldwide, non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free right and license (with rights to sublicense, including, without limitation, through multiple tiers) to display, perform, reproduce, modify as to format or appearance but not substance, transfer and distribute such content (with or without your associated public profile information), in any media formats and through any channels (whether now known or hereafter developed). In addition, by submitting an answer, you waive all moral rights in such content in favor of Investopedia. You agree to not post the identical answer on any website other than your own personal or professional website, and social media platforms.
In addition to participating in the AI Service by providing answers to users鈥 questions, you will also have the opportunity to contribute other content for inclusion on our website, including without limitation, articles. All such additional submissions are in our discretion and are subject to this TOU. By submitting any such content, you grant Investopedia a worldwide, non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free right and license (with rights to sublicense, including, without limitation, through multiple tiers) to display, perform, reproduce, modify as to format or appearance but not substance, transfer and distribute such content (with or without your associated public profile information), in any media formats and through any channels (whether now known or hereafter developed). In addition, by submitting such content, you waive all moral rights in such content in favor of Investopedia.聽You agree to not post the identical content on any competing website.
You agree to indemnify and hold Investopedia harmless from and against any claims arising out of or related to your participation in the AI Service, including those alleging that any answer or other content you submit to or publish through the AI Service, or your participation in the AI Service, violates any law or regulation or infringes or otherwise violates any intellectual property or other proprietary right of any person or entity.
You are not entitled to or eligible for any compensation or benefits with respect to your participation in the AI Service.聽Your participation in the AI Service is solely in your discretion.聽You are, and at all times shall be, an independent contractor, and nothing in this TOU is intended or should be construed to create a partnership, joint or co-venture, franchise, agency or employer-employee relationship between Investopedia and you. You will take no position with respect to or on any tax return or application for benefits, or in any proceeding directly or indirectly involving Investopedia that is inconsistent with your being an independent contractor (and not an employee) of Investopedia. You are not the agent of Investopedia and you are not authorized, and must not represent to any third party that you are authorized to make any commitment, assume any obligation, undertake any liability or otherwise act on behalf of Investopedia. This TOU, and our relationship, is a commercial, arm鈥檚-length relationship and does not create any special or fiduciary relationship. In your capacity as an independent contractor, you agree that you: (i) determine, in your sole discretion and judgement, the time, mode, manner, method and means used by you in your participation in the AI Service; (ii) have the right to control how such participation is to be performed; (iii) may accept or choose not to participate in the AI Service; and (iv) are free to accept work from persons, firms and other third parties other than Investopedia.
If, notwithstanding the foregoing, you are reclassified as an employee of Investopedia, or any affiliate of Investopedia, by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Department of Labor, the Canada Revenue Agency or any other federal, state/provincial/territorial or foreign agency as the result of any administrative or judicial proceeding, you agree that you will not, as the result of such reclassification, be entitled to or eligible for, on either a prospective or retrospective basis, any compensation or employee benefits under any plans or programs established or maintained by Investopedia.
In the event that Investopedia makes general education and/or continuing education webinars available to financial advisors or others (each a 鈥淈strong>Webinar鈥 and together 鈥淈strong>Webinars鈥?, the below applies in addition to the rest of the terms of this TOU. You understand and agree to receiving communications from Investopedia and/or providers of these Webinars, including as set forth in the 鈥淐ommunications鈥 section of this TOU. Investopedia reserves the right at any time and for any reason and without notice to you, to change, modify, suspend, or cancel access to and/or any and all of the Webinars and/or services related to the Webinars, in whole or part.
- Continuing Education. Investopedia may offer continuing education Webinars that are Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards Inc. (鈥淈strong>CFP Board鈥? and/or Investments & Wealth Institute庐 (鈥淈strong>IWI鈥? approved. Investopedia will identify which Webinars are approved for such credit on the landing page(s) for each Webinar. You understand and agree that Investopedia may be required to share information regarding your participation in and/or completion of such certified program to the CFP Board and/or IWI in order for you to be eligible for and/or receive continuing education credits.
- General Education. Investopedia may offer Webinars that are for general education and are not approved for any credit by any professional or state/provincial/territorial board or organization or by any educational institution.
For Informational Purposes Only. Each Webinar and any content or materials provided in connection with any Webinar is for informational purposes only. Information may not be applicable for each state/province/territory and/or jurisdiction. Investopedia cannot guarantee that any information provided in a Webinar will be accurate, complete, and/or current at all times. We make no representations or warranties regarding the quality of the Webinar content, related materials, or any instructor.
All Webinar content is owned by or licensed to Investopedia and/or its licensed content providers, and all such rights are reserved. You may not reproduce, upload, transmit, distribute, publicly display, sell, publish, copy, or otherwise use the Webinar, and/or any content or materials provided in connection with any Webinar for any commercial purpose without Investopedia鈥檚 express written consent.
The appearance of any instructor in any Webinar is not and shall not be deemed an endorsement or recommendation of that instructor by Investopedia and the views expressed in any Webinar are those of the instructor and not Investopedia.
General.聽Investopedia offers online information courses, workshops, classes and other educational programs relating to the world of finance to you for a fee (鈥淐ourse(s)鈥? through its Investopedia Academy services. For clarity, the Investopedia Academy is included as part of the Services offered by Investopedia. Investopedia may also offer you the ability to engage in communication with fellow users taking the Courses. This TOU, including this section specifically on Investopedia Academy, govern your purchase, use and/or access to any Course. You must login to your account to sign up for a Course. Investopedia uses third party services to provide the platform for the Courses as well as for payment processing and those third parties may have access to your information for the purposes of providing the Course Services. Please note that we may communicate with you as set forth in the 鈥淐ommunications鈥 section of this TOU in connection with the provision of the Investopedia Academy and/or other Investopedia services.
Informational Purposes Only.聽These Courses are offered for information purposes only. Neither Investopedia, nor any person providing instruction in any Course, is providing you legal, accounting, investment or financial advice. You are solely responsible for confirming the accuracy and appropriateness of the information for your own uses with your tax, finance, or legal advisor. Investopedia鈥檚 provision of any Course or the appearance of any specific person instructing any Course is not a recommendation by Investopedia of that Course, the content contained therein or the person providing instruction. We do not employ any instructors and are not responsible or liable to you for any interactions between you and any instructor or any other user of the Services. We make no representations or warranties as to the quality of any Course or instructor.聽
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Taxes.聽If you elect to access or use Services that involve payment of a fee, then you agree to pay that fee and all taxes associated with such access or use, including, if applicable, any sales tax Investopedia believes in good faith that it is required to collect Investopedia may collect taxes (e.g., sales tax or VAT) on any transaction where it reasonably believes that tax collection is required. Where Investopedia believes in good faith that VAT collection is required for any Course, VAT will be calculated and added once your billing information is provided. You will indemnify and hold Investopedia harmless against any and all claims by any tax authority for any underpayment of VAT, and any penalties and/or interest thereon. Investopedia is unable to provide you with tax advice and you should consult your own tax advisor.
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Course Ownership.聽We and our licensors own all right, title and interest in and to the Course(s) and related materials. We and/or third party licensors either own or have all necessary rights in and to the content contained in any Course (e.g., lectures, video lessons, quizzes, presentation materials, assignments, images, text, displays, documents, audio and/or video clips, HTML, etc.). The foregoing includes any and all copyrights, trademarks, or other proprietary rights under applicable law. Nothing contained in this TOU or in any Course conveys to you any ownership or other proprietary right except as otherwise set forth herein.
Any Investopedia logos and/or trademarks that appear in any Course are our property and may not be used without our express written consent. All other trademarks, service marks and logos used in connection with any Course, with or without attribution, are the trademarks, services, or logos of their respective owners and may not be used without their express written consent.
Your Use of the Courses.聽Subject to your compliance with this TOU and any other guidelines or policies we include through the Services, Investopedia grants you a limited, non-transferable, non-sublicenseable, non-exclusive, revocable license to make non-commercial, personal use of the Courses you purchase. Purchase of a Course only entitles you to the view the Course, and is not a purchase of the software or content included in the Course. Except as set forth below, Investopedia reserves the right to terminate your access to the Site at any time for any reason or no reason at all, with or without notice to you. Unless you have, as determined in our sole discretion, violated this TOU, such termination will not terminate your right to view any Courses you have already purchased. You may not transfer your account to any other person or use anyone else鈥檚 account. Except as otherwise expressly permitted in this TOU, you are prohibited from and may not copy, sell, re-sell, display, reproduce, publish, modify, creative derivative works from, transfer, distribute, or commercially exploit the Courses and/or any related materials; and Investopedia reserves the right to pursue legal action against you in connection with any unauthorized use of the Courses, the related materials, or your violation of this TOU, whether at law or equity.
Subject to your satisfactory completion of a Course, as determined by Investopedia in its sole discretion, Investopedia may provide you with a certificate of accomplishment upon conclusion of the applicable Course. You acknowledge that any such certificate merely indicates completion of a Course and is not affiliated with any college, university, company, or other certifying institution, and does not stand in the place of a course taken at any academic institution and does not convey academic credit or certification for any such academic institution and neither Investopedia nor any instructor has any obligation to you to assist you in obtaining any such credit or certification.
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Modification and/or Termination of Courses.聽We reserve the right to at any time, modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently any one of the Courses or the Investopedia Academy in whole or part. You agree that we are not liable to you or any third party for any such modifications, suspension, or termination of any or all Courses. Nothing in this TOU shall be construed to obligate us to maintain and/or support any of the online Course services, in whole or part, during the term of this TOU or thereafter.
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Investopedia may offer incentives, offers, promotions, discounts, sweepstakes, or contests in connection with its Services. In the case of sweepstakes or contests, you will be provided separate terms and conditions that must be agreed to in order to be eligible for participation in any sweepstakes and/or contests. In connection with any incentives, rewards, or similar programs (For example, but not limited to, the Advisor Insights incentives program for financial advisor users and discount codes for Investopedia Academy), any such program is issued at Investopedia鈥檚 sole discretion and cannot be transferred, bartered or sold or used for a purchase where payment is made using payment information (e.g., a credit card number or PayPal account). Any such incentives and/or programs are not a payment instrument; they are issued without any exchange of money or value from you and you have no vested property right or interest in the incentives. Investopedia reserves the right to cancel or revoke any incentives or programs, or your participation therein, for any reason or no reason whatsoever, including, without limitation, if it determines in its sole discretion that you have violated these terms, the terms specific to any rewards, incentive, or other program, or the rest of this TOU. Investopedia reserves the right in its sole discretion at any time and without prior notice to you, to add to, remove or otherwise change the terms applicable to the issuance and use of any incentive, offers, promotions or other similar program.聽
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In the event that Investopedia makes available reviews of online brokers (each a 鈥淈strong>Review鈥 and together the 鈥淈strong>Reviews鈥?, the below applies in addition to the rest of the terms of these TOU. You understand and agree to receiving communications from Investopedia, including as set forth in the 鈥淐ommunications鈥 section of this TOU. Investopedia reserves the right at any time and for any reason and without notice to you, to change, modify, suspend, or cancel access to and/or any and all of the Reviews.
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You may not reproduce, upload, transmit, distribute, publicly display, sell, publish, copy, or otherwise use the Review, and/or any content or materials provided in connection with any Review for any commercial purpose without Investopedia鈥檚 express written consent.
The publication by Investopedia of any Review is not and shall not be deemed an endorsement or recommendation of that broker by Investopedia and the views expressed in any Review are those of the Reviewer and not Investopedia.
The information contained in a Review may be different from the information provided when you visit the website of a financial institution, service provider or specific product. When evaluating online brokers, please review the online broker鈥檚 own terms and conditions. We do not make any warranties or representations regarding the quotes, fees, terms, rates, coverage or services offered or made available by online brokers.聽We do not guarantee that quotes, fees, terms, rates, coverage or services offered by online brokers are the best available. We are not involved with and are not responsible for any fee arrangement that you may enter into with any online broker or other service provider. You hereby release us of any and all losses, costs, damages or claims in connection with, arising from or related to your use of a service provider鈥檚 products or services.
Investopedia may receive compensation from online brokers when a user applies or gets approved for a financial product through our Website. Compensation may influence which products and brokers we review and write about, and whether products appear on our Website. The Website does not purport to feature every online broker or financial product available on the market.
Exam Preparation Materials
In the event that Investopedia makes available study guides and other exam preparation information, including study guides and/or links to such materials on third party sites (collectively the 鈥淓xam Prep鈥?, the below applies in addition to the rest of the terms of these TOU. You understand and agree to receiving communications from Investopedia, including as set forth in the 鈥淐ommunications鈥 section of this TOU. Investopedia reserves the right at any time and for any reason and without notice to you, to change, modify, suspend, or cancel access to and/or any and all of the Exam Prep material.
All Exam Prep material and information available on Investopedia or third party sites linked-to through Investopedia are for informational purposes only. Exam content review, methods of study, tips and sample questions are only recommendations, and use of this material does not guarantee passing any exam. While Investopedia has made reasonable efforts to provide current and accurate information, Investopedia will not be held liable for any unintentional errors or omissions that may be found.聽Investopedia is not affiliated, approved, or endorsed by FINRA, the NFA, NAASA, the CFA Institute, CMT Association, GARP, IIROC or the IRA.
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Though we seek to partner with quality companies, we are not responsible for the claims or representations made by advertisers and sponsors. Investopedia does not review, endorse or recommend the products or services of any company mentioned on our Site. We will not be liable in any way for damages of any kind resulting out of the misuse of any personal information or data submitted by you to an advertiser or sponsor.
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The parties have agreed that this contract and all related documents be drafted in English.聽Les parties aux pr茅sentes ont demand茅 et convenu que le pr茅sent contrat et tout document y aff茅rent soient r茅dig茅s en anglais.
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